Allergy Mate

Fructose malabsorbtion

fructose1
May 13, 2013 Allergy Mate Curator

A digestive disorder resulting in an increased concentration of fructose in the intestine.

Fructose malabsorbtion is also known as dietary fructose intolerance, it is common especially in Central Europe. This condition should not be confused with the more serious, and rarer, Hereditary Fructose Intolerance (HFI).

In healthy people fructose is absorbed in the small intestine. For sufferers of fructose malabsorption, any unabsorbed fructose reduces the absorption of water in the large intestine, and results in the metabolization of fatty acids and hydrogen, carbon dioxide and methane gases in the intestines, often resulting in symptoms similar to Irritable Bowel Syndrom.

Fructose is absorbed in the small intestine. In healthy people up to 50g of fructose can be absorbed per sitting. Sufferers of fructose malabsorption may absorb less than half of this amount. Generally it is recommended avoiding foods and beverages containing greater than 0.5 g fructose in excess of glucose per 100 g greater than 3 g fructose in an average serving quantity regardless of glucose intake and greater than 0.2 g of fructans per serving. Sufferers should also avoid foods with a fructose-to-glucose ratio of greater than 1 (glucose enhances absorption of fructose: fructose from foods with a lower fructose-to-glucose ratio are readily absorbed).

Sufferers should also take care to avoid foods containing “fructans” – chains of fructose molecules that occur naturally in many foods.

There is no cure for fructose malabsorbtion. Management of the condition consists primarily of avoidance of fructose in the diet.

Potential symptoms

Abdominal pain (stomach cramps)
Bloating
Constipation
Depression – Absorption disorders in the intestines may prevent other substances such as amino acids from being absorbed which may affect the synthesization of hormones and neurotransmitters
Diarrhoea / diarrhea
Eye pain
Fatigue
Flatulence
Inability to concentrate

Potential high risk

Blackberry – 2.4g fructose per 100g (Fructose-to-glucose ratio: 1.1)
Blueberry – 3.5g fructose per 100g (Fructose-to-glucose ratio: 1.36)
Cabbage – 0.9g fructose per 100g (Fructose-to-glucose ratio: 1.11)
Coffee substitute (chicory -based)
Gooseberry – 3g fructose per 100g (Fructose-to-glucose ratio: 1.1)
Grape Juice – 7.5g fructose per 100g (Fructose-to-glucose ratio: 1.05)
Kaki – 8g fructose per 100g (Fructose-to-glucose ratio: 1.1)
Kiwi fruit – 4.6g fructose per 100g (Fructose-to-glucose ratio: 1.06)
Milk (sweetened)
Oranges – 2.2g fructose per 100g (Fructose-to-glucose ratio: 1.1)
Pawpaw / Papaya – 17g fructose per 100g (Fructose-to-glucose ratio: 1)
Peach – 1.2g fructose per 100g (Fructose-to-glucose ratio: 1.2)
Peach (dried) – 13.5g fructose per 100g (Fructose-to-glucose ratio: 1.05)
Peas (green) – 1.3g fructose per 100g (Fructose-to-glucose ratio: 1.36)
Pineapple – 4g fructose per 100g (Fructose-to-glucose ratio: 1.1)
Pomegranate – 8g fructose per 100g (Fructose-to-glucose ratio: 1.1)
Raisins – 30g fructose per 100g (Fructose-to-glucose ratio: 1.01)
Raspberry – 2.4g fructose per 100g (Fructose-to-glucose ratio: 1.1)
Strawberry – 2.4g fructose per 100g (Fructose-to-glucose ratio: 1.1)
Sucrose – 50g fructose per 100g (Fructose-to-glucose ratio: 1)
Tomato – 1.4g fructose per 100g (Fructose-to-glucose ratio: 1.26)
Wine (white; sweet) – 0.4g fructose per 100g (Fructose-to-glucose ratio: 1.08)
Zucchini – 1g fructose per 100g (Fructose-to-glucose ratio: 1.13)

Potential moderate risk

Apricot (dried) – 4.9g fructose per 100g (Fructose-to-glucose ratio: 0.5)
Apricot (uncooked) – 0.7g fructose per 100g (Fructose-to-glucose ratio: 0.5)
Banana – 4g fructose per 100g (Fructose-to-glucose ratio: 0.84)
Chick peas
Dates – 19 – 32g fructose per 100g (Fructose-to-glucose ratio: 0.95)
Plum – Up to 4g fructose per 100g (Fructose-to-glucose ratio: 0.72)
Prune / dried plum – Up to 23g fructose per 100g (Fructose-to-glucose ratio: 0.77)
Prune puree / juice – 13.8g fructose per 100g (Fructose-to-glucose ratio: 0.61)
Sweet potato (cooked; in skin) – 0.5g fructose per 100g (Fructose-to-glucose ratio: 0.88)

Potential negligable risk

Acesulfam potassium (ACE-K; Nutrasweet™)
Basil
Celery
Cinnamon
Coffee (unsweetened; plain)
Cumin
Cumquat
Egg
Fish (fresh; tinned; no sauce)
Marjoram
Meat (fresh; not breaded)
Milk (plain)
Oregano
Parsley
Potato (white)
Pumpkin
Rosemary
Seeds
Swiss chard
Tea (plain)
Thyme

Potential very high risk

Agave nectar / syrup – Up to 70g fructose per 100g (Fructose-to-glucose ratio: more than 1.5)
Aparagus – Contains significant amounts of fructans
Apple (dried) – 29g fructose per 100g (Fructose-to-glucose ratio: 2.83)
Apple juice – 5.6g fructose per 100g (Fructose-to-Glucose Ratio: 2.67)
Apple – 5.8g fructose per 100g (Fructose-to-glucose ratio: 2.83)
Apples – 6g fructose per 100g
Applesauce – 7.5g fructose per 100g
Artichoke – Contains significant amounts of fructans
Bread (rye wholemeal) – 1g fructose per 100g (Fructose-to-glucose ratio: 1.47)
Cherries – Up to 7.2g fructose per 100g (Fructose-to-glucose ratio: 1.53)
Chickory – Contains significant amounts of fructans
Chutney – Has a high fructose-to-glucose ratio
Dried apricots – 12.5g fructose per 100g
Figs – 24g fructose per 100g (Fructose-to-glucose ratio: 0.91)
Fructo-oligo-saccharides (FOS) – Source of fructans; sometimes added to foods such as yoghurt
Fruit paste – High fructose-to-glucose ratio
Grapes – 7.4g fructose per 100g (Fructose-to-glucose ratio: 1.04)
High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS) – 39g fructose per 100g (Fructose-to-glucose ratio: 1.22)
Honey – 40.1g fructose per 100g (av. Fructose-to-glucose ratio: 1.23)
Honeydew Melon – 1.4g fructose per 100g (Fructose-to-glucose ratio: 2.1)
Inulin – Source of fructans; sometimes added to foods such as yoghurt
Leek – Contains significant amounts of fructans
Lemon Lime soda/softdrink – 5.8g fructose per 100g
Mango – 2.6g fructose per 100g (Fructose-to-glucose ratio: 3.05)
Onion – Contains significant amounts of fructans
Orange juice – Up to 5.3g fructose per 100g (Fructose-to-glucose ratio: 2.2)
Pear – 6.2g fructose per 100g (Fructose-to-glucose ratio: 2.25)
Pear juice – Up to 9g fructose per 100g (Fructose-to-glucose ratio: 5)
Radicchio (Italian chicory)Â – Contains significant amounts of fructans
Spring onion – Contains significant amounts of fructans
Watermelon – 3.9g fructose per 100g (Fructose-to-glucose ratio: 1.94)
Wheat – In large volumes; contains fructans

Unknown / suspected risk

Medications – Fructose & sorbitol can be found in some medications

Top related products on Amazon.com (sponsored links)